The ancient Romans lived in the city of Rome and its surrounding territories between 753 BC and the 5th century AD. During this time period, they built an advanced civilization without the use of electricity. Electricity is a form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles that allow work to be done. The ancient Romans did not utilize electricity like we do today to power devices in their homes. Instead, they relied on more basic sources of energy and technology.

Heating Systems

One of the biggest needs for energy in Roman homes was for heating. Roman winters could get quite cold, with average low temperatures around 45°F in December and January. Without electricity for furnaces and space heaters, the Romans had to find other ways to heat their homes and baths.


The Romans developed an ingenious heating system called the hypocaust to warm their homes and public baths. Hypocausts distributed heat from a furnace through a hollow space under the floor and inside the walls.

Here's how hypocausts worked:

Hypocausts provided central heating throughout Roman houses and baths without the need for electricity. The Romans were able to enjoy heated floors and rooms using this clever engineering system.


The Romans also used braziers filled with hot coals to provide portable heating. Braziers were metal bowls on legs that held hot coals, acting as ancient space heaters. If rooms were still cold with the hypocaust system, Romans could move braziers around to provide extra warmth.

Cooking Appliances

The Romans did a significant amount of cooking in their homes. Without electric stoves and ovens, they developed other methods for cooking their food over open flames.

Kitchen Fires

Most Roman kitchens contained hearths on the floor where the Romans built cooking fires. These open fires allowed them to boil water and cook various dishes in pots and pans. Hearths were sometimes built on raised platforms for the comfort of the cook.


The Romans used wood-burning masonry ovens to bake bread. These ovens were shaped like beehives and made from brick or clay. Fires were built inside the ovens to heat them up. Then the coals were raked out, dough placed inside, and the openings sealed to bake the bread using the residual heat.

Grills and Spits

Romans also cooked meat over open grills and spits turned by hand. Rotating spits allowed meat to cook evenly over an open fire. Grills were set over coals or embers to provide the heat. These simple grilling devices enabled Romans to roast meat without electricity.

Lighting Sources

The Romans needed ways to light their homes at night without electric lights. Here are some of the illumination sources they relied on instead:

Oil Lamps

One of the main forms of lighting in Roman houses came from terracotta oil lamps. These lamps consisted of small, shallow bowls with room for oil and a wick. The wick was lit to produce a flame for light. Oil lamps were inexpensive and could be found throughout Roman homes.


The ancient Romans also made candles from tallow or beeswax to burn for light. Candle holders allowed the candles to stand upright. Candles were more expensive than oil lamps, so they were less common. But candles did produce a brighter light.


Romans designed houses with large windows to let in natural sunlight during the day. Most homes faced south to maximize sun exposure. Windows cut down on the need for lamps and candles during daylight hours.

So in summary, ancient Romans found ingenious ways to provide heating, cooking, and lighting in their homes without using electricity. The hypocaust system, wood-burning stoves, oil lamps, and candles allowed Romans to maintain a relatively comfortable lifestyle without electrical power sources. Their clever low-tech solutions provided the vital energy services needed for daily life in ancient Rome.