The ancient Egyptians were ingenious engineers who used unconventional materials to light up the dark passageways and chambers inside the pyramids. They employed a variety of innovative techniques to illuminate these massive stone structures.

Ancient Egyptian Light Sources

The ancient Egyptians had limited access to conventional fuels like oil and wood. Therefore, they had to rely on more readily available materials to produce light inside the pyramids. Some of the unorthodox materials used were:

Animal Fat

The Egyptians would collect fat from animals like cattle, sheep, goats etc. This animal fat was then used to fuel lamps and torches. Animal fat burned relatively cleanly and provided a steady source of light and heat. Small clay lamps filled with fat were a common sight inside pyramids.


Beeswax was another important source of fuel for lighting. The Egyptians had a thriving beekeeping industry and had easy access to beeswax. Being denser than animal fat, beeswax burned longer and brighter. The Egyptians made tapered candles from beeswax to light up small chambers inside the pyramids.

Palm Oil

In the hot climate of Egypt, date and oil palms flourished. The sap from these palms was extracted to produce palm oil. The oil from just one palm tree could keep an Egyptian lamp burning for an entire year. Palm oil was likely used in ceremonial settings inside the pyramids.

Olive Oil

The Egyptians also extracted oil from olives grown along the Nile River. Olive oil lamps were commonly used by ordinary Egyptians in their homes. But this premium fuel likely illuminated only the most sacred inner chambers of the pyramids.

Innovative Lighting Methods

The ancient Egyptians devised unique ways to make the most of animal fat, beeswax and oils to illuminate the pyramids:

Tapered Candles

Beeswax and tallow were used to make tapered candles that could fit into small wall sconces. As the candles burned down, they needed to be replaced less frequently than lamps. Candles helped light up narrow passageways over extended periods.

Concave Reflectors

The Egyptians placed concave metal reflectors behind lamps to maximize light from a small flame. These primitive reflectors projected light from a single lamp deeper down long passageways.

Palm Oil Pipes

Archaeologists have discovered extensive palm oil piping systems inside pyramids. Palm oil would be stored in a central reservoir. Clay pipes delivered the oil to lamps throughout the pyramid. This allowed lighting many rooms from a single palm oil source.

Window Reflectors

Some pyramids were designed with small air shafts and windows. The Egyptians strategically placed highly polished gold or copper plates outside these windows. Sunlight reflected off these plates helped indirectly illuminate inner chambers and eliminate the need for lamps during the day.

Why Unconventional Light Sources?

The ancient Egyptians used animal fat, beeswax and oils for lighting because:

The ingenious methods employed by the ancient Egyptians provided effective lighting inside the pyramids using the limited resources available to them. Their innovative use of unorthodox materials demonstrates how resource constraints often lead to creative solutions that help advance engineering and technology.