Building your own robot to clean your home may sound complicated, but it's actually quite achievable using an Arduino microcontroller and some basic electronic components. In this comprehensive guide, I'll walk you through the full process of constructing a simple cleaning robot from start to finish.

What You'll Need

Before we begin, here are the main items you'll need to gather:

That covers the key ingredients. Now let's start building!

Constructing the Chassis

The chassis provides the base frame of the robot. You can build your own custom chassis using wood, plastic or metal. But for simplicity, I recommend starting with a ready-made kit or prefabricated chassis. Some good options:

Attach the motors, wheels, and any sensors to the chassis using the included hardware or by soldering. The exact placements can vary, but make sure to leave room for all components and allow wires to reach.

Wiring up the Electronics

Now it's time to wire up the Arduino, motor shield, motors, and other electronic components. Follow these steps:

  1. Mount the Arduino and motor shield securely to the chassis using screws or adhesive.

  2. Connect the motors to the motor shield screw terminals or solder wires directly. Standard DC hobby motors typically use red for power and black for ground.

  3. Connect sensors to the Arduino input/output pins using jumper wires. Refer to pinouts. Triple check your connections.

  4. Connect the power pack terminals to the motor shield. Use a separate pack for Arduino logic if desired.

  5. Link Arduino to coding computer with USB cable. This will provide programming ability and power.

At this stage, your robot should have a working electronic system, ready for some programming!

Coding the Control Logic

To give the robot intelligence, we'll need to upload code to the Arduino telling it how to operate:

// Include motor and sensor libraries

void setup() {

// Initialize components


void loop() {

// Read sensor values

// Navigate room

// Start cleaning behaviors


The exact code will depend on your build, but here are some key operations to program:

Take it slow, uploading the logic in stages and testing each part before moving on. The Arduino IDE helps streamline the coding process.

Testing Maneuverability and Cleaning

With the build complete, it's time to test it out! Here are some recommended experiments:

Make incremental adjustments to the mechanics, electronics, and code as needed. It often takes some trial and error before the robot operates optimally.

Final Touches

Some finishing touches that can help improve your cleaning bot:

With that, you now have your own autonomous cleaning robot ready to maintain your floors! Developing it takes patience and experimentation, but the end result is an extremely helpful tool that makes house cleaning a breeze.